Observatoire du Territoire



Malagasy Local Land Offices: What are the Determinants of their Integration in the Local Governance?

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In 2005, Madagascar embarked on a major land reform whose foundation is inter alia based on the
establishment of new decentralized land administration operated by the Communes: the Local Land
Office (LLO or Guichets Fonciers). Upon its establishment, the LLO is facing three main challenges:
its effective management and valuation by local authorities, its ownership by the population, and over
all its financial sustainability. Six years after the first LLO was inaugurated, the overall statement
depicts mixed statuses related to their performances, ownership by local stakeholders and
perpetuation. This paper aims at highlighting the determinants that could influence the upholding of
these Local Land Offices as well as the quality of their operation, and targets to unravel key conditions
towards their sustainability. On the basis of a set of in-depth studies and field experiences conducted
by the Malagasy Land Observatory on LLO and local governance, the paper uses a general assessment
covering more than 300 Communes in 2012. The paper delineates the stakes and challenges related to
the decentralization of land management and the institution of LLO. It compares the local context, the
operating conditions and the social interactions of 3 groups of LLO according to their upholding

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